Leadership & Strategy by ロバート・ライシュ先生
2009年 09月 04日
Leadership and Strategy
Fall term, 2009
Goldman School of Public Policy
Professor Robert B. Reich
Purpose of the course: To acquaint you with the basic principles and practices of leadership, defined as the ability to focus a group’s, an organization’s, or a public’s attention on common problems and to mobilize necessary energy and resources to solve or ameliorate them. We will be examining public and not-for-profit organizations, advocacy groups, and individual “change agents,” all seeking either to improve service delivery, institute new policies, or empower those who need more voice.
We’ll begin with the understanding that the capacity to lead is different from the possession of formal authority. Although formal authority may aid in the job of leadership, there are many people with formal authority who do not lead and many leaders who lack formal authority. We will also examine the important role of “social contracts” – norms and ideals about what people owe one another as members of a group or society (or even the human race); the inevitable gap between those ideals and day-to-day realities; and the cognitive dissonance between ideals and realities as providing a normative basis for social leadership. We’ll be looking at the ways in which organizations and societies use denial, escapism, scapegoating, and cynicism as means of avoiding what needs to be done to narrow that gap, and how leaders overcome these “heat-deflecting” strategies. It is hoped that, in learning to apply this framework and the principles that flow from it, you will further develop your own capacities for leadership of groups, organizations, and of society. .
Requirements: As a member of this course, you will be expected to attend all lectures (which normally run from 10 to 11:30 am on Mondays, with an optional “salon” discussion from 11:30 to noon); to attend a weekly two-hour “leadership laboratory” conducted by Graduate Student Instructors during the term; to complete exercises for those labs, including a leadership exercise for the entire class; and to keep a journal of the insights you glean during the term, and of how they may apply to you and your future practice of social leadership. Grading will be based on class participation, lab participation, and written assignments, and journal.
Week 1. Understanding leadership.
August 26. Entire class: Introduction. The goals of this class. Overview of the semester.
“Aaron Friedman” from The New Yorker.
Takeaways: The purpose of the course, how the course fits into the core curriculum, the elements of leadership, the paradox of leadership, the difference between formal authority and leadership, and the meaning of “personality drugs.”
Week 2. The Essence of Leadership: Sources of Authority and Feedback.
August 31. Entire class. Sources of authority and feedback. What makes a “great group.” The role of the labs, and “master classes.”
CASES AND READINGS
Rosa Parks (from Brinkley, Rosa Parks: A Life, chapter 6);
Tommy the Bat Boy.
Ronald Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers, chapters 2 and 3;
September 2: First leadership lab: Forming a task group.
EXERCISE: Prepare for the lab a one-page summary-synopsis of your best-selling autobiography, to be published fifty years from now. Be prepared to share it.
Richard Hackman, Leading Teams, chapter 2 “A Real Team,” and chapter 3 “Compelling Direction.”
Takeaways: Sources of authority and feedback, great groups and what they require, and the capacity to take “low-altitude” and “high-altitude” looks at the process.
Week 3. Feedback mechanisms
(September 7. Holiday)
September 9. Leadership lab. Topic: Developing feedback mechanisms.
EXERCISE: Prepare for the lab a one-page memo on what you consider an ideal feedback mechanism for (1) assessing your ongoing performance in this course, (2) assessing the ongoing performance of your lab, (3) assessing the ongoing performance of this course, and then (4) making necessary corrections in each. Be prepared to discuss (and to implement, when and if possible).
Hackman, Leading Teams, chapter 4 “Enabling Structure,” and chapter 5, “Supportive Context.”
Takeaways: Feedback loops, creating your own criteria and feedback systems, soliciting feedback, and developing performance measures – for yourself, for a group, for an organization.
Week 4. Thinking institutionally while maintaining your ideals.
September 14. Entire class: Your own ideals and your organization’s mission.
CASES AND READING:
Alberto Mora. (From Jane Mayer, “The Memo,” The New Yorker);
Hugh Heclo, On Thinking Institutionally, chapter 2.
September 16. Leadership Lab: What’s your responsibility? How can you “manage upward”?
EXERCISE: Prepare for the lab a one-pager on an instance where you have been less than satisfied with the performance of a superior, and how you have managed (or could have managed) the situation constructively.
Recommended: Robert Bolt, A Man for All Seasons.
Takeaways: When you have a duty to resign, to “leak,” to go public, or take an issue to a higher authority; alternatively, when you have a duty to “salute” and accept what you consider to be inadequate performance of a superior; when and how you can “manage upward” to improve the situation.
Week 5: Correctly diagnosing an organization’s problem and conducting the heat.
September 21. Entire class: Diagnosing correctly and locating the heat.
CASE AND READING
Audrey Simmons and the FAA.
Bardach, A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis, “Step One: Define the Problem,” pp 1-10.
September 23: Leadership lab: How to find and conduct the heat.
EXERCISE: Prepare for the lab a one-pager on (1) what you consider to be an important problem for GSPP or U Cal Berkeley, or the city of Berkeley, (2) what criteria you have used to determine it’s a problem, (3) what’s standing in the way of the problem being addressed. Be prepared to discuss.
Takeaways: “Heat” as cognitive dissonance between mission and reality, “heat shields” and “heat conductors,” the peril of “relations” jobs, the importance of pacing and sequencing.
Week 6: Conducting the “heat” between conflicting groups, and negotiating solutions.
September 28. Entire class: Policymaking in a Democracy
CASE AND READINGS:
Managing Environmental Risk: The Case of Asarco.
Heifetz and Linsky, Leadership on the Line, chapters 5 and 7.
Reich, The Power of Public Ideas, introduction.
September 30. Leadership lab: Negotiating solutions.
EXERCISE: write a one-pager on an example of an inter-group conflict you’ve observed or experienced, and how a “positive-sum” solution was or could have been achieved. Be prepared to discuss.
Takeaways: The tension between interest-group intermediation and net-benefit maximization, and also between creating value and claiming value; ways to put responsibility back on to conflicting parties.
Week 7: Conducting the “heat” society-wide, through social movements.
October 5. Entire class: Social movements and social change.
Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, ch. 4, “The First Trombone;” ch. 5, “The Montgomery Bus Boycott.”)
October 7. Leadership lab: Moral visions.
EXERCISE: Prepare for the lab a one-pager on a powerful moral vision today, and how it is capable of supporting leadership on an important public policy. Be prepared to defend your view about why you believe it to be a powerful moral vision, and why and how it lends support to policy change.
Bono, “Address to the National Prayer Breakfast,” February 2, 2006.
Ralph Reed, Politically Incorrect: The Emerging Faith Factor in American Politics, chs. 13, 14, 17.
Robert Bellah, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life, ch. 7, “Getting Involved.”
Takeaways: The “social contract,” why social movements are based on moral visions about the social contract, how social movements gain momentum, why they are difficult to sustain, and how they differ from campaigns.
Week 8: Enlisting Others
October 12. Entire class: The uses of story and narrative
Hanna Rosin, “Life Lessons: How Soap Operas Can Change the World,” The New Yorker, June 5, 2006;
Barak Obama, Speech to the Democratic National Convention, 2004.
George Lakoff, “The PolicySpeak Disaster for Health Care”
October 14: Leadership lab: Using your story, listening to others, and enlisting them.
EXERCISE: Prepare a one-pager on “your story”of why you’re dedicated to some campaign, movement, ideal or cause, and why you want others to join you. Be prepared to share it.
READING: Kim Bobo et al., Organizing for Social Change, chs. 4, 5, 7, 10, and 12.
Takeaways: Why stories are powerful motivators, how they can be used and abused, why personal stories are important in enlisting others; understanding organizational stories, movement stories, societal stories.
Week 9. Overcoming denial and escapism.
October 19. Entire class: “The Four Horsemen of the Work-Avoidance Apocalypse”
VIEWING AND READINGS:
Please make sure you have seen both “An Inconvenient Truth” and “Hotel Rawanda.”
Nicholas Kristof, “Genocide in Slow Motion,” The New York Review of Books, February 9, 2006; “Heroes of Darfur,” New York Times, May 7, 2006.
Albert Hirschman, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, chapter 8.
October 21: Leadership lab: Overcoming denial and escapism.
EXERCISE: Prepare a 750-word oped, designed to overcome denial or escapism among those who will read it. Be prepared to share it.
Howard Gardner, Changing Minds, ch. 1, “The Contents of the Mind.”
RECOMMENDED (and for extra credit): Read one of the following books and explain in a 2-pager how the author overcame the public’s denial and escapism about the issue at hand:
Ida Tarbell, The History of the Standard Oil Company;
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle;
Ralph Nader, Unsafe at Any Speed;
Michael Harrington, The Other America;
Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative;
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique;
(Or pick another.)
Takeaways: How one recognizes organization or societal denial, and differentiates it from escapism; the roles of facts, analyses, and images in overcoming denial or escapism; the roles of artists, muckrakers, and investigative reporters; the centrality of pacing and sequencing; the importance of “catalytic” events; why, as “exit” becomes easier, the job of leadership becomes more challenging.
Week 10. Overcoming scapegoating and cynicism
October 26: Entire class: The tendency to scapegoat, in organizations and societies. The work avoidance mechanism of cynicism.
CASE AND READINGS:
Michael Brown and Hurricane Katrina (from news clippings).
James W. Dean, Jr. et al., “Organizational Cynicism,” Academy of Management Review.
Albert Hirschman, “Reactionary Rhetoric,” The Atlantic Monthly.
Martin Luther King, Jr., Speech August 28, 1963, Washington, D.C.
October 28: Leadership lab: Overcoming scapegoating and cynicism
Takeaways: The danger of organizational and societal scapegoating, how to distinguish it from holding people accountable for their misfeasance or nonfeasance, how societal scapegoating can be used by groups and societies to avoid doing hard work, leadership versus demagoguery in times of social stress, cynicism as a barrier to social change, the media and cynicism, the importance of small victories and large visions in seeking to overcome scapegoating and cynicism.
Week 11: The perils of leadership.
November 2: Entire class.
Heifetz, chapter 10, “Assassination.”
Other readings to be distributed.
Takeaways: The dangerous seductions of leadership, and how to overcome them. In overcoming both denial and escapism, the dangers of marginalization and burnout. The seduction of righteousness, the dangers of messianism and martyrdom.
November 4: Leadership lab: Preparation for presentations.
November 9: Leadership Lab: Preparation for presentations.
November 11: Leadership Lab: Preparation for presentations.
November 16 and 18: Entire class: LEADERSHIP LAB PRESENTATIONS AND FEEDBACK
November 23 and 25: Entire class: LEADERSHIP LAB PRESENTATIONS AND FEEDBACK
November 30 and December 2: Entire class: LEADERSHIP LAB PRESENTATIONS AND FEEDBACK
Week 16: Conclusions, Summary, and Your Brilliant Careers.
December 7: Leadership labs meet separately.
December 9: Entire class: Looking back on the term, and forward.