2009年 09月 28日
properly designed environmental standards can trigger innovation that may partially or more than fully offset the costs of complying with them. Such "innovation offsets," as we call them, can not only lower the net cost of meeting environmental regulations, but can even lead to absolute advantages over firms in foreign countries not subject to similar regulations. Innovation offsets will be common because reducing pollution is often coincident with improving the productivity with which resources are used. In short, firms can actually benefit from properly crafted environmental regulations that are more stringent (or are imposed earlier) than tbose faced by their competitors in other countries. By stimulating innovation, strict environmental regulations can actually enhance competitiveness.
Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 9, Number 4—Fall 1995—Pages 97-118